Shallow and hand-dug wells

Many small-scale farmers in peri-urban areas have adopted the use of shallow wells and hand-dug wells to supplement the shortfall in water supply for dry-season irrigation. These adaptation measures will make it possible for the farmers to produce various crops (vegetables, flowers, fruit and dairy products) of interest to urban consumers. Use of recycled water has also dissuaded some of these urban farmers from using drinking and industrial water in urban areas for irrigation.

Climate Related Risk

Changes in precipitation, Drought, Drying trend

Form of Option

Behavioural, Technological

Country of Origin


Resource-dependent people (e.g. farmers, fishers, miners)


The option exists in a real setting and was not created as part of the project.

Institution / Legal Reach

Change in norms or ways of doing things