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This study focused on peri-urban areas outside Bangalore to understand how forces of development, urbanisation and climate change are shaping these places. We have found that people are deprived with regard to poverty, especially in the dimensions of nutrition, water, sanitation and house floor. We have specifically found that water is a big challenge in many parts of the peri-urban areas. Efforts are thus required to conserver water and relevant ecosystem services.

Vulnerability assessments are necessary to ensure local communities adequately cope and adapt to both extreme events and climate change impacts. For many institutions working on climate change and disaster management, the high level of vulnerability for communities can come as a wake-up call. A vulnerability assessment requires a comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of climate change and disasters on all human, financial and social and political assets. Human assets express the quality of human resources including education and capacity, communication and information exchange. Financial assets consist of per capita community investment budgets in the national budget and financial sustainability of community-based organizations. Finally, Social and political assets focus the relationship between business and government institutions, traditional cultural and familial bonds, local network/associations and the ability to influence policy decisions. Undertaking a vulnerability assessment involves revisiting current strategies to coping with extreme weather events to also include considerations of the impact on food security, environmental sustainability, and poverty reduction.

Working with local partners at three cities on this project on climate change communication to build city resilience, the research team realized there were a number of misunderstanding concerning communication. This confusion led to ineffective and inadequate climate change programs. Two causes for this were identified. First, it was found that people thought each subject/field/audience required its own typical communication style. For example, it was perceived that the communication style for HIV needed to be different from the style for environmental protection. Second, it became clear that people did not know where to find resources on climate change, and that it would be easier to communicate relevant information if it was all included in one package of information. Communication guidelines for climate change were thus identified as necessary to ensure the success of climate change programs. Each city in the study developed its own version that is user-centered and tailored based on their culture, and language/dialect. 

Coordination of activities undertaken by water users and water service providers to undertake short-term planning for the use and delivery of water resources while taking into account likely end of rainy season outcomes. Such planning is critical to adequately support economic activities.

The formalization of RWH at the household and community level to improve water quality, the sharing of availability information, inclusion of extra storage for climate variability. For agriculture, the use of check dams to capture run-off for use for micro-irrigation. In the case of Barbados it would be for aquifer recharge.

The ecosystems and livelihoods of the Ugandan population are threatened by climate change, which is manifested in escalating droughts, floods, and variability in the seasons. The cattle corridor, which covers 40% of Uganda’s land, is prone to recurrent droughts and is one of the areas most affected by climate change and variability in the country. Farmers here receive little or no relevant information to help them cope with drought and other climatic stresses. Using information and communication technology (ICT) tools, the IDRC-funded Climate Change Adaptation and ICT (CHAI) project provided adaptation information to over 200,000 farmers in local languages in three intervention districts, including seasonal weather forecasts and agricultural information localized to sub-county level; weekly livestock and crop market information to help farmers decide what, when, where and how much to sell; guidance on low cost rainwater harvesting techniques; information on drought and flood coping mechanisms; and termite control measures. The project aimed to assess how improved access to such information enabled farmers to take appropriate actions, such as planting early maturing crops to minimize the impact of climate variability and change. 75% of the households used the received information, and are reduce crop loss and damage by 67%.

Fish farmers who are well connected with other fish farmers, whether it is through informal networks, clubs or formal associations, have better access to information about climate risks and options to manage these risks. One practical way to build such connections is to bring individual farmers to visit other groups and see what they do. The benefits of groups can include sharing equipment, cheaper feed prices, and improved access to markets all of which can help reduce climate-related risks (floods, droughts, disease outbreaks) to profits.

Fish farmers adjust stocking practices at different times of the year to take into account seasonally-varying risks of floods and droughts at their location. For example, to reduce risks of exposure to low river flows in the dry season farmers may choose to stock larger fish so they can harvest before the high-risk period. Fish farmers also reduce stocking densities when they anticipate conditions will be stressful. In years where water levels are projected to be very low, they may choose not to stock fish at all for several months until conditions for rearing fish improve.

The Can Tho researching group focused on the concerns of school children with respect to climate change by utilizing fun and interactive communication tools involving songs and flash mob competitions. Children were taught about climate change issues and how they relate their own communities. More specifically, researchers were interested on how the children saw climate change affecting them in the future. The ultimate goal of the initiative was to assess how Climate Change and associated uncertainty can be communicated most effectively without the message losing its credibility.

Researchers in the Quy Nhon region used game theory approaches to communicate local impacts related to climate change to city planners and policy makers. Game theory is the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. The approach was used specifically to aid policy makers in understanding the options and implications of their decisions, actions, and inaction on flooding in their community. In this study, researchers recognize that increased flood risks caused by bad planning, such as construction that blocks drainage and amplifies floods, have been identified as good entry points with planners at provincial and national level. Researchers' initial findings have been used to build credibility, such as the finding that November 2013 floods in Vietnam were caused by untimely reservoir releases.

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