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An electrical resistivity survey produces a graph that allows to determine the salt content of groundwater sources. In most systems, metal probes (electrodes) are inserted into the ground to obtain a reading of the local electrical resistance. A variety of probe configurations are used, most having four probes, often mounted on a rigid frame. In these systems, two of the probes, called current probes, are used to introduce a current (either direct or low-frequency alternating current) into the earth. The other two probes, called voltage or potential probes, are used to measure the voltage, which indicates the local resistivity. In general, greater probe spacings yield greater depth of investigation, but at the cost of sensitivity and spatial resolution. This type of survey was proposed to communities in the Comahue region (Argentina) who depend on digging wells to secure their water supply.

Development of a university degree at the bachelor's level on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). IWRM is a coordinated, goal-directed ‘process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems and the environment’ (source). IWRM also acts as a comprehensive, participatory planning and implementation tool for managing and developing water resources in a way that ensures efficient, equitable and sustainable development and management of the world’s limited water resources and for coping with conflicting demands. Students learn about the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, water use and transfer, as well as governance and community based approaches to water management. The degree is supported by the United Nations University and it will be delivered online across different countries in Central America and the Caribbean.

In the region under study, Benin, climate change is projected to decrease overall rainfall and negatively impact crop yields in a country highly dependent on agriculture. Irrigation was considered an important adaptation step in areas that had previously relied on rain-fed agriculture. This adaptation option was linked with the extension of agricultural credit. Low levels of capital and resources often prevented farmers from investing in irrigation.

Working along with several levels of government (planners, elected officials, technical personnel) to develop a guide for the integration of climate change adaptation into development plans. This involves bringing key stakeholders to the table as well as disseminating the information in a suitable format for everyone. The guide is meant to be shared across departments and different levels of government in order to unify efforts and strengthen the public sector's capacity to disseminate accurate information.

An adaptive governance process is a type of policy that is able to adapt to anticipated conditions and build upon insights into cause-and-effect relationships and an understanding of system complexities, capacities, performance, and dynamics. Some of the inherent variability in socio-economic and ecologic conditions can be anticipated, and monitoring can help trigger important policy adjustments to keep the policy functioning well. Such policies are useful in many situations of change or volatility but particularly in relation to a changing climate. Six processes support the development and function of automatic adjustment policies: 1) Integrated assessments identify causal factors, key impacts, and scenario outlooks for a range of anticipated conditions, including worst-case scenarios. 2) Deliberative processes strengthen the policy design by building recognition of common values, shared commitments, and emerging issues, and by providing a comprehensive understanding of causal relationships. 3) Policy review is undertaken on a regular basis, even when the policy is functioning well, and can help policies deal with emerging issues and trigger policy adjustments. This component is part of continuous learning that is necessary for automatic adjustment. 4) Policies encourage interaction, initiative, and self-organization to help foster innovative responses to unexpected events. Space is provided for flexibility and barriers to collaboration are reduced. 5) Action occurs at the most appropriate jurisdiction, depending on the nature of the issue, and based upon the idea of subsidiarity. Policies can be crafted to assign priority to the lowest jurisdictional level of action consistent with effectiveness. For example, scale of ecosystem and governance should be matched like in watershed-based management. 6) Small-scale interventions for the same problem offer greater hope of finding effective solutions. Diversity facilitates the ability to persist in the face of change, and spreading risk is part of managing complex systems.  

To identify specific examples of adaptive policy mechanisms, this project is conducting community-level case studies in Canada and India. Using historic climate variability as a backdrop and agriculture and water resources management as the context, the project identified public policies that facilitated short-term coping and long-term adaptation measures of farmers, and studied the adoptive mechanisms of these policies. A framework emerged mid-way through the four-year research project that found that some policies can indeed adapt better than others to both anticipated and to unanticipated conditions, and still fulfill their original goals effectively. Adaptive policies can adapt to anticipated and unanticipated conditions. Policies for anticipated conditions take a no-regrets approach to planning and possess three mechanisms: they automatically adjust based on triggers as circumstances change, they are developed with an integrated assessment of key impacts, causal factors, and scenario outlooks, and they involve multi-perspective deliberation. Policies for unanticipated conditions include a holistic understanding of the complexity, capacity, performance, and dynamics of institutions. They use four mechanisms: formal review and continuous learning, self-organization and networks, subsidiarity, and diversity through small-scale interventions.

This study identified a wide range of improvements that residents in flood-prone areas have implemented in their homes including: building dikes, embankment, raised structures, raised toilets, the use of pumps, digging trenches or using sandbags. However it should be noted that not all of them were found to be equally useful.

The Local Adaptation Plan for Flood Water (Plan Local d'Adaptation aux Eaux d'Inondation) is a local planning and management tool that includes technical, organizational, environmental and institutional measures to adapt households, infrastructure and equipment to regular flooding, preventing risks and managing flood waters. This is also a tool for improved governance and participation.

A rainwater drainage channel was constructed in a community that suffers frequent flooding where residents had to pump the water out. The channel runs along 80 meters and it is approximately 80 cm width x 60 cm height. This will ensure that water runs to a natural water reservoir.

This analysis consisted of an in-depth evaluation of alternative agricultural techniques using economic tools, such as cost-benefit analysis, to encourage uptake of agricultural options by farmers who are usually risk averse. This analysis played an important role in identifying the adaptation options that would be appropriate for this region, particularly small-scale agricultural strategies that would enhance the adaptive capacity of farmers.

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