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Inter-basin water transfer involves taking water from areas of surplus to areas where it is in critically short supply and negatively impacting industrial and other developments.

Solar-powered desalination offers an alternative to costly water imports in areas with inadequate water supply or decreasing water supply due to climate change.

Solar water heaters (SWHs) are renewable energy technologies that use available solar heat to warm a working fluid, which heats water in a heat exchanger and stores excess heat in a thermal store.

Decentralized or distributed rainwater harvesting (DRH) systems offer a means of both supplementing strained water sources in times of drought and reducing pumping demand during times of flood.

Decentralized or distributed rainwater harvesting (DRH) systems offer a means of both supplementing strained water sources in times of drought and reducing pumping demand during times of flood.

Low-flow installations can be used to save water in order to meet the needs of growing urban populations. The installations increase water conservation and lowers consumption of water.

The operation of solar powered pumps is more economical mainly due to the lower operation and maintenance costs and has less environmental impact than pumps powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE).

A hydraulic ram is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower.

A treadle pump is a human-powered suction pump that sits on top of a well and is used for irrigation. Treadle pumps have primarily been developed for pumping water for irrigation, and can be used to a depth of seven metres or less.

Mangroves prevent coastal erosion by trapping sediment in their roots, thereby maintaining a shallow slope of seabed along coasts. This serves to absorb the energy of tidal surges. Mangroves also buffer the impact of wind.

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