The African Climate Change Fellowship Program facilitates the dissemination of adaptation knowledge, enhances climate change mainstreaming in a variety of institutions, and has the potential to influence policy and decision-making on climate change adaptation in Africa. For many decision-makers, climate change adaptation is still fairly new. A knowledge hub supports spreading awareness and access to climate information.
Research analyzing how members from resource dependent communities may react to a lack of water resource.
As a strategy for climate change adaptation, conversion from flood irrigation to drip irrigation can provide opportunities to improve both the farm-level net returns and the public net benefits of conserving limited water resources. This intervention saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone. Potential farm-level benefits include reductions in water deliveries and labor costs, higher crop yields, and a broader range of production opportunities in regions where water supplies are particularly limited. Potential public benefits include higher farm-level net returns and higher net values generated by agriculture and in water being made available for other uses.
National adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to adapt to climate change – those for which further delay would increase vulnerability and/or costs at a later stage. Use well-developed, up-to-date NAPAs (National Adaptation Program of Action) and the accompanying processes as a basis for presenting project portfolios and adaptation-relevant background data. Non-LDCs could benefit from the development and implementation of adaptation plans and strategies as outlined in well-prepared NAPAs, combined with an underlying NAPA development process. This will provide tools to describe climate-change impacts and implement proposed adaptation measures.
The Focus City Research Initiative (FCRI) project focused on waste management practices in the city of Cochabamba, and on improving the lives and work of informal recyclers based at the Kjara Kjara landfill. Five recycling plants were designed to enable informal recyclers to collect diverted materials closer to the site of disposal, thereby reducing their need to sort through a mixed waste stream at the landfill. Observations of the project outcomes at the time of final reporting included increased waste diversion rates, higher earnings for informal recyclers, and greater social inclusion of informal recyclers with respect to relationships with fellow workers and residents of their working areas. Another waste management initiative in the city involved the creation of compost from organic wastes created by local businesses, and the transfer of logistic and financial responsibility for such processes to the business themselves. There was some uptake for this project by local cemeteries, one of which had purchased a milling machine to help reduce the volume of compost produced by their extensive landscaping practices. Livelihood outcomes include improved resource assets for the extended community (i.e. improved environmental services in the form of access to recycling in the neighborhoods where the plants are located, as well as reduced amounts of waste being sent for final disposal in landfill), improved financial assets for informal recyclers, and improved social assets for informal recyclers in the form of greater social inclusion.
Crop models were used to simulate the impact of climate and agricultural practices on crops. The agricultural practices that were simulated include adjustments to planting dates and fertilizer amounts. The simulation suggested that early planting and late planting would produce higher yields depending on the climate scenario in Malawi and Swaziland. An assessment of the variance of yields and mean yields together also suggested that it is difficult to ascertain which planting dates would be more beneficial to smallholder farmers under climate change. Lesotho on the other hand appeared to benefit from late planting. While it is not clear which planting dates resulted in higher yields under the control period, late planting consistently resulted in higher maize yields under future conditions. Late planting may also aid in taking advantage of the warmer climate in Lesotho, thereby resulting in higher yields.
To reduce the increasing prevalence of malaria as a result of climate change, subsidized mosquito nets provided to middle income earners is particularly important as they are the most likely to suffer from the disease.
The AfricaInteract project is an African-wide initiative aimed at providing an appropriate forum for interaction among a broad range of stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa on climate change adaptation. The overall objective of AfricaInteract is to develop a platform for the effective and efficient transfer of information to policy makers, with the ultimate aim of enhancing the resilience of vulnerable populations. Targeted stakeholders include civil society, researchers, policy-makers, development partners, and the private sector working on adaptation to climate change in agriculture, health and urban development. The initiative focuses on agriculture, health and urban with water as a cross cutting issue.
Early warning systems are developing "from the ground up" to reduce the impact of flash floods in Medellín and nine other neighboring municipalities in the Aburrá Valley of the Colombian Andes. Warning systems have the capacity to expand beyond a focus on flash floods to a range of other applications such as water pollution. The time it takes for response agencies to issue on-time warnings to the population (via "loud speakers", radio and/or television when operational), is a limitation that may be resolved with better phone applications and social networking systems such as Twitter. The researchers stress that effective warning systems have multiple communication mechanisms in place should any one fail. As climate change is projected to make extreme events more frequent in some regions, effective warning system are a major step toward planning for major disasters.