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Small loans are provided to heads of households to weatherproof their homes after the rainy season. They also get technical assistance to do the required modifications.

Informal settlements lack access to municipal infrastructure that supply water, which means that households (and women in particular) have to walk long distances or wait a long time to fetch water from municipal spigots.

Local community committees for early warning and adaptation were created with local actors (e.g. mayor, health personnel, and safety personnel) to train these actors on climate change impacts, adaptation options, strategies for reducing risk, and strategies for responding to climate disasters.

Local government agents play an important role in disseminating new information regarding farming practices. They are the intermediary between the Ministry of Agriculture and local communities.

The climate change impacts in Benin are expected to increase variability in crop yields and threaten food security. Research showed that farmers who had more access to productive resources (e.g. land, capital, and labour), were more likely to take adaptive strategies.

In this study, households took credit or loans to cope with drought. A third of households studied reported that easy repayment procedures and instant coverage of risk were the major reasons for taking credit and loans.

Farming households may change cropping patterns in response to variability in rainfall, lack of water, or easy accessibility of seeds of alternative crops that require less water. Patterns change annually based on various water situations.

Many small-scale farmers in peri-urban areas have adopted the use of shallow wells and hand-dug wells to supplement the shortfall in water supply for dry-season irrigation.

One of the ways in which farmers in the peri-urban areas adapt to the increasing water demand in cities is the use of urban wastewater for peri-urban irrigation of agricultural plots.

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) constitute a technological option for adaptation to climate change for developing countries, for example through improved effectiveness of insect pest management and improving crop productivity.

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