Small loans are provided to heads of households to weatherproof their homes after the rainy season. They also get technical assistance to do the required modifications.
Informal settlements lack access to municipal infrastructure that supply water, which means that households (and women in particular) have to walk long distances or wait a long time to fetch water from municipal spigots. Small-scale private water operators can be used to transport water to informal settlements reselling it for a slightly higher price, thus improving access to water for vulnerable populations.
Local community committees for early warning and adaptation were created with local actors (e.g. mayor, health personnel, and safety personnel) to train these actors on climate change impacts, adaptation options, strategies for reducing risk, and strategies for responding to climate disasters. Though these committees were created, they initially saw themselves as helpless in coping with flooding that had taken place. The researchers found that it was crucial to increase the technical knowledge and capacity of these committees. One of the goals of this project was supporting these committees in developing a local plan for dealing with extreme weather events. Each committee member had a five year term to ensure continuity and commitment.
Local government agents play an important role in disseminating new information regarding farming practices. They are the intermediary between the Ministry of Agriculture and local communities. Increasing the climate change knowledge of these agents is an opportunity to better disseminate information to farmers and other community members.
The climate change impacts in Benin are expected to increase variability in crop yields and threaten food security. Research showed that farmers who had more access to productive resources (e.g. land, capital, and labour), were more likely to take adaptive strategies. Those without access to resources were more likely to suffer from the impacts of climate change. The results of this research project indicated that a lack of agricultural credit for farmers limited their ability to adapt.
In this study, households took credit or loans to cope with drought. A third of households studied reported that easy repayment procedures and instant coverage of risk were the major reasons for taking credit and loans. Official sources (banks, cooperatives, and self-help groups) accounted for a little over half of the loans in the study region. In other areas, loans were not functioning due to a lack of detailed activity plan and no revolving fund. Communities approach banks and private money lenders for availing the loan facilities.
Farming households may change cropping patterns in response to variability in rainfall, lack of water, or easy accessibility of seeds of alternative crops that require less water. Patterns change annually based on various water situations. During a stressful year, farmers are advised to grow less water intensive crops such as millet and gram.
Many small-scale farmers in peri-urban areas have adopted the use of shallow wells and hand-dug wells to supplement the shortfall in water supply for dry-season irrigation. These adaptation measures will make it possible for the farmers to produce various crops (vegetables, flowers, fruit and dairy products) of interest to urban consumers. Use of recycled water has also dissuaded some of these urban farmers from using drinking and industrial water in urban areas for irrigation.
One of the ways in which farmers in the peri-urban areas adapt to the increasing water demand in cities is the use of urban wastewater for peri-urban irrigation of agricultural plots. Using urban wastewater for peri-urban irrigation of agricultural plots is made possible due to the lack of wastewater infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa. Use of recycled water has dissuaded some urban farmers from using drinking and industrial water in urban areas for irrigation.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) constitute a technological option for adaptation to climate change for developing countries, for example through improved effectiveness of insect pest management and improving crop productivity. Using GMO's has an associated human health risk, however the advantages include yielding more, larger crops at a faster rate.